# Roman Numerals - Laws, Chart | What Are Roman Numerals?

When you consider numericals currently, the first of all that comes to mind is the decimal system we utilize everyday. This method, however, is not the single approach to depict numericals. There are many methods used by distinct cultures all over the world that use all kinds of characters. One of approach is Roman numbers.

Since ancient Rome, Roman numbers have been a way of expressing numericals using a blend of letters from the Latin alphabet. It persisted during the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the point it is still taught in school, which is possibly why you have come across this article.

Today, we are going to look at Roman numbers, what they are, how they work, and how to transform Roman numbers to regular numbers.

## What Are Roman Numbers?

Primarily, let's take a quick look at the history of Roman numbers. Roman numericals were first used by the ancient Romans, as you may have guessed from the name. They were utilized in multiple aspects of the Roman world, consisting of trade, architecture, and even war.

Currently, its main use is primarily due to artistic reasons. You may have observed Roman numbers as hour marks on a clock, page numbering, chapter numbers, copyright dates, or in movie sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part II).

The Roman number system represents numericals using a combination of characters from the Latin alphabet. Characters are blended to make groups that represent numericals. Seven characters, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, represent the numericals 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, respectively. You can then mix these numericals to depict any value in the numerical system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

Even though the decimal system is based on the ideas of place value, Roman numbers are established on linear and subtractive principles. This means that a Roman number's numeric values are established on the sum of the values of its particular parts. One more important difference is that the decimal method is founded on the number 10. In contrast, Roman numerals are established on the numbers 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's look at a few practical examples of Roman numbers.

The video game street fighter IV was released in arcades way back in 2008. If we take a look at the numericals in the title, we see it consist of a V in it. This is because the number 5 in Roman numerals is represented by the letter V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Hence, we grasp that this is the 4th entry in the series employing the properties we will talk about subsequently in the article.

The movie Star Wars Episode VI was the last entry in the original trilogy. Observing the value represented, it contains a V ensued by an I. Hence, we will sum a 1 to the value of V, which is 5, concluding this Star Wars movie is the 6th entry in the franchise.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numerals, it is essential to get a grasp of the numeric value of all the characters. To assist you make this operation easy, here is a chart with all Latin letters with allocated number values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Change from Roman Numerals to Regular Numbers

Since we have the handy table of Roman numbers, we can utilize that information to change numbers back and forth simply. Following these steps, you will change these values whenever you want.

### Steps to Convert Roman numbers to Regular Numericals

To transform Roman numerals to decimal numbers, we will utilize the linear and subtractive principles we talked about.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numeral in the group.

If the Roman numeral to its right is lesser in value, then sum the two values.

If the Roman number to its right is higher in value, subtract the Roman number on the right from the Roman numeral to its left.

All you should do now is repeat this method unless you reach the end of the Roman numeral group.

Let's check out how you can transform Roman numbers with a few examples.

### Example 1

Take a look at the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numeral, which is L or 50.

The Roman number to its right is X or 10. Considering 10 is less than 50, we add the two values and get 60.

The Roman number to the right of X is X again. We sum 10 to 60 and find 70.

The Roman number to the right of X is V or 5. Considering 5 is less than 70, we sum the two values and we find 75.

The Roman numeral to the right of V is I or 1. Considering 1 is less than 75, we sum the two values and get 76.

We cease here at the end of the Roman number group. Therefore, the Roman number LXXVI is as same as the decimal number 76.

### Example 2

Study the Roman numeral MCMIII.

Initiate with the leftmost Roman numeral, that is M or 1000.

The Roman number to its right is C or 100. Since 100 is less than 1000, and it is ensued by an M, this value stands at 900.

The Roman number to the right of M is I or 1. Considering 1 is less than 1900, we add the two values and we find 1901.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1901 and we find 1902.

The Roman number to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1902 and get 1903.

Given that we have arrived the end of the Roman numeral group, we halt here with our result. So, the Roman numeral MCMIII is as same as the regular number 1903.

With this data and a little practice, you will transform Roman numbers to regular numbers like a pro!

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